Major Accidents That Happened On The Set Of A Film

By: Nicole Johnson

Major accidents that happened on the set of a film

The October 2021 death of cinematographer Halyna Hutchins on the set of the film “Rust” has focused industry and public attention on the safety of film sets.

There are many risks involved in a film’s production posed by the set, environment, weapons used as props, and stunts, among many others variables. One of the barriers to better safety measures is the inherent fragmentation of the industry itself, as laws and guidelines vary wildly by location. To look a bit deeper into these incidents, Stacker compiled a list of 10 major accidents that took place on a film set using various entertainment reporting sites.

Many of the worst on-set accidents have prompted initiatives to make things better. “Safety for Sarah” was a movement in response to the death of a camera assistant after an on-set train accident. Following a 1982 on-set helicopter crash that killed three people, a 24-hour hotline was set up as a way for people to call in their safety concerns. Unfortunately, as the “Rust” accident proves, on-set film accidents are hardly a thing of the past.

These accidents include long-lasting injuries, amputations, and death. One accident took the lives of three people after a helicopter fell from the sky. Another saw a young woman killed on the first day of a film shoot when she was hit by a train. These accidents span multiple decades and prove that no matter how often on-set film safety guidelines are updated, accidents continue to happen.

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Amblin Entertainment

A helicopter accident kills three

In the summer of 1982, an on-set accident on “The Twilight Zone” movie changed the way films were made.

Actor Vic Morrow and two child actors were killed when a helicopter fell from the sky. Renee Chen was crushed, and Morrow and Myca Dinh Le were killed by the blade of the chopper. “I’ll keep you safe, kids. I promise. Nothing will hurt you, I swear to God,” was the line Morrow was meant to deliver but would never get to. While director John Landis continued to make films, changes did come in the industry. Warner Bros. vice president John Silvia founded a committee to create safety standards called the Safety Bulletins for all aspects of the filmmaking industry.

Paramount Pictures

A stunt pilot’s plane plunges into the Pacific

Art Scholl, a stunt pilot whose work included aerial stunt work and photography, worked on films like “The Right Stuff,” “Iron Eagle,” and “Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom.”

While working on the 1986 film “Top Gun,” Scholl was filming backdrop scenes while in his Pitts S-2 camera plane. He found that he couldn’t maintain altitude after a flat spin. The plane plunged into the Pacific Ocean and Scholl’s body was never recovered.

Crowvision Inc.

An up-and-coming actor dies when a gun isn’t properly cleaned

Brandon Lee, son of martial arts expert Bruce Lee, died on the set of the 1994 film “The Crow.” Lee was filming a scene where the character he played was shot. The prop gun hadn’t been properly cleaned, and when actor Michael Masse fired the gun, debris from a blank cartridge hit Lee in the chest. The actor was rushed to the hospital where he bled to death. Lee’s shots for the film were completed with his stunt double and CGI effects. They shot the film in North Carolina, so it did not have to adhere to the union standards in Hollywood.

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Warner Bros.

A popular actor suffers lasting debilitating injuries

George Clooney sustained multiple injuries in 2005 on the set of “Syriana.” “There was this scene where I was taped to a chair and getting beaten up, and we did quite a few takes. The chair was kicked over and I hit my head,” Clooney said when he spoke about the accident to NPR. “I tore my dura, which is the wrap around my spine, which holds in spinal fluid.” Initially, his injuries didn’t seem so bad, but the headaches became so intense that the actor later said he considered taking his own life. After several surgeries, he found relief and went on to win an Oscar for Best Supporting Actor for “Syriana.”

Warner Bros.

A vehicle crashes into a tree

The 2008 film “The Dark Knight” was dedicated to the memory of Heath Ledger who died of an accidental overdose during the editing of the film and to a crew member who died in an on-set accident. Conway Wickliffe had also worked on “Die Another Day” and “Batman Begins.” Wickliffe was rehearsing a scene when the accident happened. The 4X4 Wickliffe was riding in did not turn properly and his head was hanging out of the vehicle, which crashed into a tree. Special effects expert Christopher Corbould, who was in charge on set was cleared of any wrongdoing. Wickliffe was not wearing a seat belt.

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David McNew // Getty Images

A crew member is killed by a train

On the first day of filming the 2014 film “Midnight Rider: The Gregg Allman Story,” a horrible accident killed camera assistant Sarah Jones and injured other crew members. The crew was filming in Georgia on active railroad tracks. Jones didn’t have enough time to clear the area after she was given a one-minute warning to do so, and was hit by an oncoming train. The film’s director, Randall Miller, served a year in prison for trespassing and involuntary manslaughter. “Safety for Sarah” is a non-profit started in Sarah’s memory meant to foster on-set safety awareness.

Gotham Group

An actor is dragged under a vehicle

While filming the third installment in the “Maze Runner” series in 2016, lead actor Dylan O’Brien suffered several injuries, including fractured orbital sockets and cheekbones, as well as a concussion and multiple lacerations. While performing a stunt in which he moved from the top of one car to the top of another, O’Brien was dragged under a vehicle.

His injuries were far more serious than they originally seemed—production on the film was pushed back for a year to allow for O’Brien to make a full recovery. “Maze Runner: The Death Cure” was eventually released on Jan. 26, 2018.

Constantin Film

An accident causes an on-set death and amputation

During the 2016 film, “Resident Evil: The Final Chapter,” crew member Ricardo Cornelius was killed. A car that was not secured slid off a platform and pinned him against a wall. That wasn’t the only accident on set though. Milla Jovovich’s stunt double, Olivia Jackson, collided with a metal camera arm that didn’t function the way it was supposed to. The accident caused multiple injuries. The worst forced the amputation of her left arm.

Marvel Studios

A critical shoulder injury halts film’s production

Actor Letitia Wright was injured in a stunt rig accident on set in August of 2021 during the filming of “Black Panther: Wakanda Forever.” Her injuries included a concussion and a fractured shoulder. Wright was hospitalized with injuries that were thought to be minor at the time. In November, production on the film halted to give her more time to heal. Her shoulder injury was actually a critical shoulder fracture. Production resumed in January 2022.

Sam Wasson // Getty Images

A prop gun accidentally discharges

On the set of the Western, “Rust” actor Alec Baldwin in October 2021 killed the film’s cinematographer Halyna Hutchins and injured director Joel Souza. The prop gun Baldwin was holding during a rehearsal accidentally discharged. The accident led to the filing of many civil suits, and law enforcement continues to investigate. The assistant director on the film, Dave Halls, admitted to investigators that he did not inspect every round in all the chambers of the firearms on set. A “lead projectile” was found in the gun used by Baldwin and other live rounds were also found on set.

  • Story name: Famous protests in US history and their impacts
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  • Written by: Joni Sweet
  • Description: From the Boston Tea Party to Black Lives Matter, Stacker looks at some of the most famous American protests and how they impacted the United States.
Robert Gauthier/Los Angeles Times via Getty Images

Famous protests in US history and their impacts

On Oct. 21, 1967, 100,000 people came together at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. to protest the Vietnam War. Following several speeches, roughly 50% of those gathered walked over to the Pentagon where a few hundred people then attempted to levitate the building.

The striking civic protest against the Vietnam War was noteworthy not just for its unusual call to action, but for the new and inventive ways Americans were flexing their right to peaceably assemble. And the Yippies who put on the event inspired countless creative takes on what protest could be, from the Women’s Art Movement (WAM) to the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP).

The tradition of protesting in the United States is older than the country itself. We’ve seen that historic institution in full force with Black Lives Matter protests and, more generally, protests against the storied, systemic racial injustice in the U.S. The May 25, 2020, death of George Floyd—a Black man held under the knee of a white police officer in Minneapolis—sparked protests across U.S. cities and around the world. The protesters called for justice for Floyd and other Black people—from Breonna Taylor to Elijah McClain—who were killed by police, an end to police brutality, a dismantling of racist systems and symbols (including memorials to Confederate soldiers), and a greater investment in communities in need.

The protests prompted widespread dialogue about racial injustice and the political and cultural systems that support it. The four police officers involved in the killing of Floyd were charged with crimes related to the incident—and the officer who knelt on Floyd’s neck was eventually convicted on three charges, including second-degree murder.

Only a few weeks after Floyd’s death, the Minneapolis City Council agreed to dismantle its police force and rethink how it approaches public safety (at least one of the proposed solutions, however, has since been rejected by voters). In the wake of the protests, many politicians made similar promises to adjust police budgets so money gets reallocated to support communities directly through improved housing, education, and mental health programs, especially in communities of color.

To understand where the Black Lives Matter demonstrations fit into this rich history, Stacker took a closer look at some of the most famous American protests. Research came from The New York Times, The Week, Time, and Business Insider; government archives; and information from unions and mission-driven organizations. The demonstrations that have made their mark on history range from the Boston Tea Party and Temperance prayer protests to demonstrations for modern-day issues—like civil rights, climate change, nuclear disarmament, reproductive health concerns, LGBTQ+ equality, and gun control.

Keep reading to learn about the important issues that motivated Americans to protest—and the impacts of those actions on our society today.

[Pictured: A portrait taken during The Day Without an Immigrant protest on May 1, 2006.]

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The Germantown Quakers // Wikimedia Commons

1688: Germantown Quaker petition against slavery

A group of Quakers in Germantown, Pennsylvania, in 1688 created the “first written protest against slavery in the new world,” according to the Germantown Mennonite Historic Trust. The group saw the enslavement of others as a contradiction to its religious values and its history of fleeing oppression from the British. Sadly, the petition was not formally accepted by the higher governing bodies of the Quakers, but enslavement was eventually banned within the Quaker community in 1776.

[Pictured: A photograph of the original 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery after restoration in 2007.]

N.Currier // Library of Congress

1773: The Boston Tea Party

Protesters flooded Griffin’s Wharf in Boston on a dreary December evening in 1773 to demonstrate against the Tea Act, which gave the British government an effective monopoly on selling tea in the colonies. People dumped hundreds of chests of tea from the British East India Company into the water—an act of defiance against British rule without representation of the colonists who just two years later would fight in the American Revolution.

[Pictured: A Currier and Ives lithograph showing the destruction of tea in the Boston Harbor.]

Metropolitan Museum of Art // Wikimedia Commons

1791: The Whiskey Rebellion

Enraged by a new duty on whiskey and distilled spirits implemented in 1791, farmers in Pennsylvania and Virginia used violence and acts of intimidation in attempts to stop the collection of the tax. They justified their tactics with the belief that they were fighting against taxation without representation. President George Washington and his troops headed to the area with the protests to demonstrate the government’s authority to enforce laws.

[Pictured: A painting attributed to Frederick Kemmelmeyer and titled, “The Whisky Rebellion,” depicts George Washington and troops near Fort Cumberland, Maryland.]

Bettmann // Getty Images

1848: The Seneca Falls Convention

A group of feminists on July 19, 1848, hosted the first women’s rights convention in the United States: the Seneca Falls Convention in Seneca Falls, New York. Around 300 people assembled to protest the government’s unequal treatment of women and to call for women to be granted all the rights and freedoms outlined in the Declaration of Independence. The convention gave the women’s rights movement the momentum it needed to pursue suffrage.

[Pictured: An illustration of Elizabeth Cady Stanton speaking at the Seneca Falls Convention.]


1863: New York City draft riots

Violent demonstrations erupted in Lower Manhattan from July 13–16, 1863, in response to a decision by Congress to draft men into the Civil War. The protests quickly devolved into a race riot as white protestors (comprised largely of Irish immigrants) began attacking Black people—many of whom ended up permanently moving from Manhattan to Brooklyn.

[Pictured: An illustration shows the Provost Marshal’s office burning during the draft riots in New York City on Aug. 8, 1863.]

S.B. Morton // Library of Congress

1874: The Women’s Crusade

The Women’s Crusade was a religious, anti-alcohol group. Members of the group protested the sale of alcohol through picketing, marching, and public praying outside of saloons in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Indiana, and Michigan in 1874. The group was the predecessor to the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, which helped pave the way for Prohibition a few decades later.

[Pictured: An 1874 illustration depicts women in Logan, Ohio, singing hymns to aid the temperance movement.]

Kheel Center // Wikimedia Commons

1911: Triangle Shirtwaist fire protests

Labor rights activists mounted parades to draw attention to dangerous workplace conditions and mourn the victims of a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory that killed 146 garment workers in New York City on April 5, 1911. Legislation was passed a few years later to increase workplace safety and allow people to work fewer hours.

[Pictured: Mourners picket after the Triangle fire in 1911.]

Paul Thompson/Topical Press Agency // Getty Images

1913: Suffrage movement

An estimated 5,000–8,000 protesters gathered to march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington D.C., ahead of President Woodrow Wilson’s inauguration in 1913 to call for women’s suffrage. People in opposition to the protest assaulted many of the demonstrators, sparking public outrage that ultimately helped increase support for women’s right to vote. It was one of many protests for the women’s suffrage movement that decade. The 19th Amendment, which granted women the right to vote, was finally passed in 1920.

[Pictured: Women lead the Manhattan Delegation on a Woman Suffrage Party parade through New York City in 1915.]

U.S. Army // Wikimedia Commons

1932: Bonus Army march

Around 20,000 veterans and their families assembled in Washington D.C., in June 1932 in anticipation of the passage of a bill that would allow former military members to cash in certificates for $1,000 bonuses early, in the midst of the Great Depression. The bill failed in the Senate, and shortly after, the U.S. Army used gas, bayonets, and other weapons to destroy the camp and chase out the protesters. The act of violence caused public outrage aimed largely at President Herbert Hoover.

[Pictured: Bonus Army marchers struggle with police.]

Associated Press // Wikimedia Commons

1955: The Montgomery bus boycott

After Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white passenger, the Black community in Montgomery, Alabama, banded together to boycott the city bus system in December 1955. The boycott lasted more than a year, only ending once a court order forced the Montgomery buses to integrate. The protests thrust Martin Luther King Jr. into a major leadership role of the civil rights movement.

[Pictured: Rosa Parks after being arrested on Feb. 22, 1956, during the Montgomery bus boycott.]

State Archives of North Carolina // Wikimedia Commons

1960: The Greensboro sit-in

On Feb. 1, 1960, a group of young African American students protested racial segregation by staging a sit-in at a Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. They refused to give up their seats, despite being denied service because they were Black, and even returned the following day with a larger group of protesters. The sit-ins at restaurants popped up in 55 other cities by late March and lasted through July 25 of that year. The protests led to Woolworth Department Stores ending segregation at its southern locations.

[Pictured: Civil rights protesters at a Durham, North Carolina, sit-in dated Feb. 10, 1960.]

Marion S. Trikosko // Library of Congress

1963: March on Washington

More than 200,000 protesters gathered for a peaceful demonstration outside the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. to call for racial equality in August 1963. There, Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his now-iconic “I Have a Dream” speech. The protest put pressure on President John F. Kennedy to push forward civil rights policies. It also helped get the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed.

[Pictured: Looking out on a sea of signs during the March on Washington, Aug. 28, 1963.]

William Lovelace/Express // Getty Images

1965: Selma to Montgomery march

Thousands of peaceful activists led by Martin Luther King Jr. trekked from Selma, Alabama, to the state’s capital of Montgomery in March 1965 to call for an end to the suppression of Black voters. Protesters were met with violence from white supremacist groups and local authorities throughout the five-day, 54-mile journey. President Lyndon B. Johnson would sign the Voting Rights Act of 1965 just a few months later.

[Pictured: Martin Luther King Jr. and his wife Loretta Scott King lead the march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, on March 30, 1965.]

Warren K. Leffler // Library of Congress

1968: Holy Week Uprisings

A wave of civil unrest swept through the nation after Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated on April 4, 1968, with the largest riots occurring in Washington D.C., Chicago, and Baltimore. The National Guard and federal troops were called in to stop many of the riots, which left 43 dead and thousands arrested. The riots helped revive a bill for federal fair housing and get the legislation passed in Congress.

[Pictured: A soldier stands in front of the ruins of buildings destroyed during the uprisings in Washington D.C. on April 8, 1968.]

Bev Grant // Getty Images

1968: Bra ‘burning’ at Miss America pageant

Around 400 second-wave feminists organized a protest of the Miss America pageant near New Jersey’s Atlantic City Convention Center on Sept. 7, 1968. They wanted to speak out against the “ludicrous beauty standards” women were supposed to adhere to, according to Megan Gibson of Time. The protesters tossed bras and other symbols of oppression into a trash can, which was never set on fire, but still gave birth to the myth of the “bra-burning feminist.”

[Pictured: Demonstrators protest the Miss America beauty pageant in Atlantic City, New Jersey.]

Peter Keegan/Authenticated News // Getty Images

1969: Stonewall Inn riots

On June 28, 1969, New York City police conducted a raid on a gay bar called the Stonewall Inn. Spontaneous and violent protests and riots occurred immediately after the raid and continued for the next six days. The unrest ignited the LGBTQ+ rights movement around the world.

[Pictured: A group marches up Sixth Avenue during the annual Pride parade in New York City, June 29, 1975.]

Garth Eliassen // Getty Images

1969: Vietnam War protest

The streets of Washington D.C., were flooded with more than half a million demonstrators calling for the end of the Vietnam War in November 1969. The protest was part of a string of rallies that erupted across the world that year. The war wouldn’t end for another six years.

[Pictured: View of demonstrators during the Moratorium March On Washington to protest the war in Vietnam on Nov. 15, 1969.]

Walter Leporati // Getty Images

1970: Sit-in at Ladies’ Home Journal office

A group of around 100 feminists staged an 11-hour sit-in at the offices of Ladies’ Home Journal on March 18, 1970. The protesters called for the magazine to hire women to fill editorial staff roles—including editor-in-chief—as well as commission women writers for columns, increase employment of women of color, and raise women’s salaries, among other demands. The protest resulted in the company agreeing to let the feminists create part of an issue of the magazine, and eventually hiring only women editors-in-chief starting in 1973.

[Pictured: Three demonstrators during the Women’s Strike for Equality in New York City on Aug. 26, 1970.]

Howard Ruffner // Getty Images

1970: Kent State University anti-war gathering

Around 3,000 people gathered for an anti-war rally on the Commons of Kent State University on May 4, 1970. Ohio National Guardsmen, who had been called to the campus after protesters and local police had a violent confrontation the week before, fired at the protesters, killing four and injuring another nine people. The shootings triggered student strikes nationwide and “began the slide into Watergate, eventually destroying the Nixon administration,” according to Jerry M. Lewis and Thomas R. Hensley of Kent State University.

[Pictured: View of students at an anti-war demonstration at Kent State University in Ohio on May 4, 1970.]

Bettmann // Getty Images

1973: March for Life

Anti-abortion protesters gathered in Washington D.C. for the first March for Life rally on Jan. 22, 1974. While it was initially intended as a one-time event aimed at pressuring the Supreme Court to overturn Roe v. Wade, the March for Life became an annual event continuing today. In 2020, President Donald Trump spoke at the March for Life, making him the first president to do so.

[Pictured: Anti-abortion demonstrators pass the Washington Monument on their way to the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 22, 1979.]

Spencer Grant // Getty Images

1973: First Take Back The Night march in the US

Take Back The Night events began in Belgium and England in the 1960s to draw awareness to the issue of women feeling unsafe walking on streets alone at night. The movement hit the United States in 1973 at the University of Southern Florida, when women dressed in black sheets and paraded through the campus while holding broomsticks, demanding that the school open a women’s center. Take Back The Night protests now occur annually in communities around the world as part of an effort to end sexual violence.

[Pictured: Participants hold a banner for Take Back The Night in Boston 1978.]

Warren K. Leffler // Library of Congress

1976: Marches for the Equal Rights Amendment

The National Organization for Women staged a series of marches and protests in Illinois beginning in May 1976 protesting the state’s resistance to ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). The first demonstration drew about 16,000 people to Springfield, Illinois, while a record 90,000 people attended another march in Chicago on Mother’s Day 1980. Illinois eventually ratified the ERA in 2018.

[Pictured: Women’s Equal Rights parade in Washington D.C. on Aug. 26, 1977.]

Mark Reinstein // Corbis via Getty Images

1979: National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights

After attempting to organize a march for LGBTQ+ rights since 1973, activists finally made it happen with the National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights on Oct. 14, 1979. The event attracted up to 125,000 members and allies of the LGBTQ+ community and urged Congress to pass protective civil rights legislation. It helped make the LGBTQ+ rights movement a national issue.

[Pictured: Attendees gather around the Washington Monument at the first National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights.]

Bettmann // Getty Images

1981: Solidarity Day march

Around 260,000 people took to the streets of Washington D.C., on Sept. 19, 1981, for the Solidarity Day march against union-busting. The protest was sparked after President Ronald Reagan fired more than 12,000 air traffic controllers who had been striking for increased workplace safety and higher wages.

[Pictured: Marchers, including Washington Mayor Marion Barry, Lane Kirkland, president of AFL-CIO, Vernon Jordan, and Coretta Scott King, head down Constitution Avenue in Washington D.C. on Sept. 19, 1981.]

PL Gould/IMAGES // Getty Images

1982: Anti-nuclear protest in Central Park

An estimated 1 million protesters gathered in New York City’s Central Park on June 12, 1982, to protest nuclear weapons. The event was intended to show widespread support for nuclear disarmament ahead of the United Nations Second Special Session on Disarmament.

[Pictured: A crowd participates in a peace rally in Manhattan’s Central Park in 1982.]

Allan Tannenbaum // Getty Images

1986: Great Peace March for Global Nuclear Disarmament

The Great Peace March for Global Nuclear Disarmament was a cross-country walk organized to raise awareness for the growing threat of nuclear proliferation. Around 400 people completed the 3,600-mile, eight-month journey from Los Angeles to Washington D.C. It ended with the marchers and thousands of supporters singing “This Land Is Your Land” in unison across from the White House.

[Pictured: The Great Peace March protesters travel across the George Washington Bridge in New York City on Oct. 23, 1986.]

LEE SNIDER/PHOTO IMAGES/Corbis via Getty Images

1987: Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights

The AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, a grassroots organization aimed at ending the AIDS epidemic, got its first national coverage on Oct. 11, 1987, when hundreds of thousands of protesters rallied in Washington D.C. for the Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights. The march was just one of many activities held over a series of six days, which also included the first public viewing of the NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt. It is sometimes referred to as “The Great March” for its historical significance in the gay rights movement.

[Pictured: Marchers participate in the Gay Rights March on Washington D.C. on Oct. 1, 1987.]

Ted Soqui/Corbis via Getty Images

1992: Los Angeles uprising

The six days of violent demonstrations of the Los Angeles uprising, also called the Los Angeles riots, occurred from April 29 to May 4, 1992, after four Los Angeles police officers—three of whom were white—were acquitted of the charges related to their brutal beating of Rodney King, a Black man. The National Guard and the U.S. military were called in to help end the unrest throughout Los Angeles.

[Pictured: A crowd amidst the uprising in West Hollywood, Los Angeles, on April 30, 1992.]

Shepard Sherbell/CORBIS SABA/Corbis via Getty Images

1993: March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay, and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation

An estimated 1 million people participated in the March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay, and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation at the D.C. Mall on April 25, 1993. The protesters had seven primary demands, including a civil rights bill to end discrimination against members of the LGBTQ+ community and increased funding for AIDS research and treatments, among others. The event helped give people of all sexual orientation greater attention from the media and politicians.

[Pictured: A large crowd cheers at the March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Rights on March 25, 1993.]

Porter Gifford/Liaison // Getty Images

1995: Million Man March

In an effort to encourage African American unity and promote family values, between 400,000 and 1.1. million people—most of whom were Black men—gathered in Washington D.C. for the Million Man March on Oct. 16, 1995. The event featured speeches from Rosa Parks, Maya Angelou, Cornel West, Jesse Jackson, and other prominent attendees. A theme throughout the march and events was for Black people to register to vote as a means to gain more political say-so. Following the events, around 1.7 million African American men became registered voters.

[Pictured: Attendees at the Million Man March raise their hands in fists and peace/victory signs Oct. 16, 1995, in Washington DC.]

TOM MIHALEK/AFP via Getty Images

1997: Million Woman March

Modeled after the Million Man March two years earlier, the Million Woman March involved half a million protesters, largely comprised of Black women, parading on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in Philadelphia on Oct. 25, 1997. The daylong event was intended to unite African American women and focus attention on issues that affected their families and communities.

[Pictured: Women cheer during a speaker’s comments at the Million Woman March on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway on Oct. 25, 1997, in Philadelphia.]

HECTOR MATA/AFP via Getty Images

1999: Seattle World Trade Organization protests

At least 40,000 protestors rallied against globalization and widening wealth inequality on Nov. 30, 1999, outside the Washington State Convention & Trade Center, which was hosting a World Trade Organization meeting. During the protest, demonstrators smashed Starbucks and Nike store windows around Seattle and police arrested around 600 people. The demonstrations proved disruptive to the WTO delegates’ meeting.

[Pictured: Demonstrators in the streets of Seattle protest the World Trade Organization summit on Dec. 2, 1999.]

Mark Wilson/Newsmakers // Getty Images

2000: The Million Mom March

Organized exclusively by word-of-mouth, the Million Mom March drew around 750,000 people to Washington’s National Mall on Mother’s Day 2000 to call for increased gun control regulations. The protest included a display of a “wall of death” that contained the names of more than 4,000 victims of gun violence.

[Pictured: Million Mom March protesters look and point to a wall with the names of people killed by guns May 14, 2000, in Washington D.C.]

JOEY MCLEISTER // Star Tribune via Getty Images

2003: Iraq War protests

Hundreds of thousands of demonstrators gathered near the United Nations in New York City on Feb. 15, 2003, to rally against the war with Iraq. Similar protests (as well as counter-protests) took place in major U.S. cities and around the world. The protests failed to prevent the war, but did demonstrate widespread disapproval of the Bush administration’s plan, helped avoid a war in Iran “and inspired a generation of activists,” according to Phyllis Bennis, author of “Challenging Empire: How People, Governments and the U.N. Defy U.S. Power.”

[Pictured: Anti-war marchers in Minneapolis on Feb. 15, 2003.]

Stephen J. Boitano // LightRocket via Getty Images

2004: March for Women’s Lives

Around 1.15 million demonstrators took to the streets of Washington D.C. on April 25, 2004, for the March for Women’s Lives, a rally to call for protection of abortion rights and access to birth control and reproductive health care, according to the National Organization for Women. The event made major news headlines and inspired the creation of a new voter registration campaign known as “10 for Change.”

[Pictured: Pro-choice supporters take part in the March For Women’s Lives in Washington D.C. on April 25, 2004.]

Brian Vander Brug // Los Angeles Times via Getty Images

2006: The Day Without an Immigrant

The Day Without an Immigrant, also known as the Great American Boycott, involved immigrants across the United States boycotting schools and businesses on May 1, 2006, in an effort to demonstrate the necessity of undocumented immigrant labor to the economy. The event also included rallies and marches across the country, spearheaded by two marches in Los Angeles that drew up to 2 million people. On the day of the event, Cargill Meat Solutions shut down seven of its plants, giving 15,000 workers the day off, and Goya Foods suspended delivery in most of the United States.

[Pictured: Immigrants and their supporters gather in downtown Los Angeles on May 1, 2006.]

Samuel Corum/Anadolu Agency // Getty Images

2009: Tea Party protests

A series of protests related to the Tea Party movement—a conservative political movement aimed at fighting excessive taxes and government regulation on the private sector and increasing immigration controls—occurred throughout the U.S. in 2009. While a lack of leadership gave the grassroots movement limited power, Tea Partiers did make an impact on elections in 2009 and 2010, putting momentum behind conservative and libertarian candidates.

[Pictured: Flags fly on the side of the stage at a rally held by the Tea Party at a rally in Washington D.C. on Sept. 9, 2015.]

NICHOLAS KAMM/AFP via Getty Images

2010: Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear

Satirical news show hosts Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert drew more than 200,000 people to the National Mall in Washington D.C. on Oct. 30, 2010, for the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear. The rally, which mocked the Reclaim the Dream and Restoring Honor rallies, was intended to draw attention away from partisan politics and instead focus the political conversation against corruption. Donations from the rally’s charity drive brought in hundreds of thousands of dollars in contributions to and the Trust for the National Mall.

[Pictured: People gather on the National Mall in Washington D.C. on Oct. 30, 2010, for the Rally Restore Sanity and/or Fear.]

Mario Tama // Getty Images

2011: Occupy Wall Street

After being denied entrance to Wall Street, thousands of activists set up a demonstration with hundreds camping out overnight, at nearby Zuccotti Park in New York City to protest against economic inequality in September 2011. The protest lasted for months and inspired other Occupy demonstrations in cities around the world. The demonstration drew lots of attention from politicians, got around 600,000 people to transfer their savings from major banks to community credit unions, and pushed the issues of the 99% into the national spotlight.

[Pictured: Protesters affiliated with the Occupy Wall Street movement rally in Foley Square before marching though Lower Manhattan on Oct. 5, 2011.]

NICHOLAS KAMM/AFP via Getty Images

2013: First Black Lives Matter protests

Protests broke out across the United States after George Zimmerman was found not guilty of second degree murder for the shooting of Trayvon Martin, a Black teenager, in Sanford, Florida. The protests were part of the birth of the Black Lives Matter movement.

[Pictured: People demonstrate in Washington on July 20, 2013, following acquittal of George Zimmerman in the shooting death of unarmed Black teenager Trayvon Martin.]

Andrew Burton // Getty Images

2014: People’s Climate March

Dubbed the largest climate change march in history, the People’s Climate March included some 310,000 demonstrators marching down the streets of Manhattan on Sept. 21, 2014. Companion events also took place around the world under the People’s Climate March banner. It drew international attention to concerns about climate change days ahead of the United Nations’ 2014 Climate Summit at its New York headquarters.

[Pictured: People protest for greater action against climate change during the People’s Climate March on Sept. 21, 2014, in New York City.]

EDERIC J. BROWN/AFP via Getty Images

2015: Armenian March for Justice

A march of more than 130,000 protesters, which stretched for 6 miles from the Little Armenia neighborhood of Hollywood to Los Angeles’ Turkish consulate, took place on April 24, 2015, in demand that Turkey officially recognize the Armenian Genocide. While 32 countries officially recognize the Armenian Genocide, Turkey and its ally Azerbaijan continue to deny the systemic mass murder of 1.5 million Armenians.

[Pictured: Tens of thousands of Armenian Americans take to the streets of Los Angeles on April 24, 2015, to march for justice and in memory of victims of the Armenian genocide.]

Helen H. Richardson/The Denver Post via Getty Images

2016: Dakota Access Pipeline protests

Thousands of Native Americans and their allies gathered in rural Cannon Ball, North Dakota, to protest against the Dakota Access pipeline in early 2016. Activists feared that the oil pipeline would contaminate the Missouri River water supply and threaten sacred native land. The demonstrations motivated President Barack Obama’s administration to deny an easement for pipeline construction, which was reversed by President Donald Trump weeks later.

[Pictured: Flood lights from the North Dakota national guard light up the night sky amid the teepees, tents, RV, and cars at Oceti Sakowin Camp on the edge of the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation on Dec. 1, 2016, outside Cannon Ball.]

Mario Tama // Getty Images

2017: The Women’s March on Washington

Nearly half a million people—mostly women—marched down the streets of Washington D.C. on Jan. 21, 2017, to show support for women’s rights and demonstrate against newly elected President Donald Trump. Millions of other people took part in similar protests around the world that day.

[Pictured: Protesters walk during the Women’s March on Washington on Jan. 21, 2017, in Washington D.C.]

Bill Clark/CQ Roll Call // Getty Images

2017: The March for Science

Around 100,000 protesters took to the streets of Washington D.C. on Earth Day 2017 to call on politicians to use science when making policy decisions on public health and climate change. Similar demonstrations took place in more than 600 other cities across the globe, bringing the total attendance at The March for Science to more than 1 million people.

[Pictured: Marchers, including Bill Nye the Science Guy, center, lead the Science March down Constitution Avenue in Washington on Earth Day, April 22, 2017.]

Alex Wroblewski // Getty Images

2018: Women’s March

Re-energized from the #MeToo movement, women’s groups around the country organized mass rallies on Jan. 20, 2018, around the anniversary of the women’s march of 2017. The events drew millions of attendees—including more than 200,000 marchers in New York City and an estimated 600,000 people in Los Angeles—calling for an end to the oppression of women.

[Pictured: People gather at the Lincoln Memorial reflecting pool to rally before the Women’s March on Jan. 20, 2018, in Washington D.C.]

Jose Jimenez // Getty Images

2019: Telegramgate protests in Puerto Rico

Mass protests arose in Puerto Rico in July 2019 in response to Telegramgate, a political scandal in which hundreds of racist and homophobic messages sent by former Gov. Ricardo Rosselló via the app Telegram were leaked to the public. Around a million people protested on July 17 and again on July 22, shutting down a major highway. While Rosselló initially refused to step down, he eventually resigned several weeks later.

[Pictured: Demonstrators protest against Ricardo Rossello in front of the Capitol building on July 17, 2019, in Old San Juan, Puerto Rico.]

Sarah Silbiger // Getty Images

2019: September 2019 climate strike

Inspired by 17-year-old climate change activist Greta Thunberg, more than 1,000 strike events occurred in the United States in late September 2019 calling for a Green New Deal, respect for native land, environmental justice, sustainable agriculture, and protection of biodiversity. Public school students in New York City, Boston, Chicago, and other cities were given permission to skip school to participate in the event, and some 250,000 people attended New York City rallies. The strike would show politicians and the media that youth were united in support of measures to fight climate change.

[Pictured: Greta Thunberg delivers remarks surrounded by student environmental advocates in Washington D.C. ahead of the Global Climate Strike on Sept. 20.]

Tasos Katopodis // Getty Images

2020: Black Lives Matter

More than 450 protests against police brutality and institutional racism happened throughout the United States in late May and June after the death of George Floyd, a Black man who was killed when a white Minneapolis police officer, Derek Chauvin, kneeled on his neck for over nine minutes. Solidarity protests erupted around the world, as well. The demonstrations sparked widespread dialogue about defunding or reforming the police.

[Pictured: Demonstrators march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington D.C. on June 3 during a protest against police brutality and the death of George Floyd.]-

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  • Story name: 20 of the best extreme-weather movies
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  • Written by: Brianna Zigler
  • Description: Stacker researched the history of extreme weather on screen and put together a diverse list of 20 films. To be included, extreme weather had to be a major element of the film, and the film had to have at least a 6.0 on IMDb or a 65 on Metacritic.
Todd Shoemake // Shutterstock

20 of the best extreme-weather movies

An uptick in extreme weather events has been felt worldwide as of late. Historic flooding, excessive heat waves, drought, forest fires, and an overly active 2021 hurricane season, among many more increasingly prevalent and intense natural disasters, have left much of the world unable to hide from Mother Nature’s wrath in one way or another.

Climate change has been proven as the leading cause behind these escalating catastrophes, and we can anticipate more to come in the years ahead, so long as fossil fuels are allowed to continue ravaging the planet unchecked.

In the meantime, perhaps we can turn to the magic of the movies to get a little taste of the unpredictable future we have in store for us. From powerful tornadoes to apocalyptic flooding and freezing, rogue planets, supernatural fog, and a rainstorm of amphibians, films have been postulating scenarios of drastic, dystopic weather events for years. But will they now come to fruition?

Stacker researched the history of extreme weather on screen and put together a diverse list of 20 films. To be included, extreme weather had to be a major element of the film, and the film had to have at least a 6.0 on IMDb or a 65 on Metacritic. Counting down from 20, here are the best extreme-weather movies.

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Roadside Attractions

All Is Lost (2013)

– Director: J.C. Chandor
– IMDb user rating: 6.9
– Metascore: 87
– Runtime: 106 minutes

After a collision with another ship, a veteran mariner finds himself stranded out at sea in a vessel that’s quickly sinking. With all ties to the mainland severed, the mariner (played by Robert Redford) must face a fierce storm and use any and all survival instincts to weather unforgiving nature and find his way back to a shipping lane. Redford is the film’s sole cast member and the film has minimal dialogue—the primary lines are spoken only in the voiceover at the beginning,


Beasts of the Southern Wild (2012)

– Director: Benh Zeitlin
– IMDb user rating: 7.3
– Metascore: 86
– Runtime: 93 minutes

In a rural Delta community, tough father Wink (Dwight Henry) and his young daughter Hushpuppy (Quvenzhané Wallis) prepare for the end of the world. When Wink succumbs to a mysterious illness, the balance of the natural world becomes unstable, giving way to weather extremes and the unleashing of prehistoric creatures—so Hushpuppy leaves her threatened home to find her mom. In 2013, nine-year-old Wallis became the youngest person to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress.

Paramount Pictures

Crawl (2019)

– Director: Alexandre Aja
– IMDb user rating: 6.1
– Metascore: 60
– Runtime: 87 minutes

As an impending hurricane threatens her father’s home in Florida, obstinate Haley Keller (Kaya Scodelario) braves dangerously rising floodwaters to retrieve him. But when she arrives, not only is her father Dave (Barry Pepper), seriously injured, the two of them must battle their way out against the alligators that have circled the flooded home. One of the first draft endings closed the film on a much darker note, in which our heroes are rescued and an alligator jumps up and eats them.

Twentieth Century Fox

The Day After Tomorrow (2004)

– Director: Roland Emmerich
– IMDb user rating: 6.4
– Metascore: 47
– Runtime: 124 minutes

As a direct result of global warming, a catastrophic “superstorm” is kicked off, despite grave warnings from climatologist Jack Hall (Dennis Quaid). It sets off a domino effect of natural disasters throughout the world, and Hall and his crew must travel on foot from Philadelphia to New York in order to save his son, Sam (Jack Gyllenhaal). The film received some controversy at the time of release for its inaccurate depiction of climate disasters.

Pax Films

The Day the Earth Caught Fire (1961)

– Director: Val Guest
– IMDb user rating: 7.2
– Metascore: data not available
– Runtime: 99 minutes

Two journalists and a weather reporter discover that the simultaneous detonations of nuclear devices from the United States and Russia have caused earth’s orbit to be altered. When catastrophic natural events begin plaguing the planet, it is discovered that the earth is now hurtling toward the sun and must be put back on its axis. Actor Michael Caine is featured in an uncredited cameo as a policeman in one of his earliest feature roles.

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40 Acres & A Mule Filmworks

Do the Right Thing (1989)

– Director: Spike Lee
– IMDb user rating: 8.0
– Metascore: 93
– Runtime: 120 minutes

It’s the hottest day of the year in Brooklyn, and one neighborhood struggles to beat the heat. But when tensions rise between the residents of a largely Black neighborhood and the owners of the local Italian pizza joint, the conflict reaches a boiling point, and tragedy strikes. Director Spike Lee had originally wanted Robert De Niro to play the role of Sal, the pizza shop owner, but he turned it down because he felt that the role was too similar to characters he’d already played.

AVCO Embassy Pictures

The Fog (1980)

– Director: John Carpenter
– IMDb user rating: 6.8
– Metascore: 55
– Runtime: 89 minutes

As a small town in coastal California prepares to celebrate its centenary, the appearance of a mysterious fog coincides with a string of bizarre incidents. Inanimate objects gain sentience, an otherworldly fire ensues, a mutilated corpse is found, and death seems to follow in the fog’s wake. A remake of John Carpenter’s original cult horror classic was released in 2005, though to near-universal critical and audience panning.

Likely Story

I’m Thinking of Ending Things (2020)

– Director: Charlie Kaufman
– IMDb user rating: 6.6
– Metascore: 78
– Runtime: 134 minutes

A young woman journeys with her new boyfriend to his family’s remote farm, where she meets his peculiar mother and father and begins to have misgivings about their relationship. Despite insistence against it, the couple leaves the home and attempts to make the trip back through a perilous snowstorm. Starring Jessie Buckley and Jesse Plemons, the film is based on Iain Reid’s 2016 novel of the same name.

Blue Sky Studios

Ice Age (2002)

– Directors: Chris Wedge, Carlos Saldanha
– IMDb user rating: 7.5
– Metascore: 61
– Runtime: 81 minutes

Set 20,000 years ago, on the precipice of the Ice Age, a disagreeable team of creatures begins migrating south. The unlikely team consisting of a woolly mammoth, a saber-toothed tiger, a sloth, and a lost child make the trek across the increasingly freezing landscape to deliver the little human back to its parents. “Ice Age” was the first feature film for animation studio Blue Sky Studios.

Twentieth Century Fox

The Ice Storm (1997)

– Director: Ang Lee
– IMDb user rating: 7.4
– Metascore: 72
– Runtime: 112 minutes

Over the course of Thanksgiving weekend in 1973, two outwardly put-together, upper-class families slowly begin to unravel. As relationships are strained and people inch closer toward their breaking points, the worst ice storm of the century rears its ugly head. The storm in the film was based on an actual ice storm named “Felix,” which occurred over the course of December 16-17 in 1973.

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Ghoulardi Film Company

Magnolia (1999)

– Director: Paul Thomas Anderson
– IMDb user rating: 8.0
– Metascore: 77
– Runtime: 188 minutes

Over the course of one day, nine people who are all, in one way or another, connected to each other, see the trajectory of their lives drastically altered. The overlapping stories of people such as a dying media titan, his male caretaker, a child prodigy, a washed-up game show champion, and a famous self-help guru all weave together into one single narrative and culminate with a bizarre weather event. A fake, late-night infomercial starring Tom Cruise in-character as Frank T.J. Mackey circulated to promote the film back in 1999.

Magnolia Pictures

Melancholia (2011)

– Director: Lars von Trier
– IMDb user rating: 7.2
– Metascore: 80
– Runtime: 135 minutes

Overcome with depression on her wedding night, melancholic Justine (Kirsten Dunst) finds solace when a rogue planet named Melancholia is discovered to be hurtling toward earth. Together, Justine and her sister, Claire (Charlotte Gainsbourg), cope with their impending deaths in different ways. The film is considered the second entry in director Lars von Trier’s unofficial triptych of films, the “Depression Trilogy,” preceded by 2009’s “Antichrist” and followed by 2013’s “Nymphomaniac.”

Paramount Pictures

Noah (2014)

– Director: Darren Aronofsky
– IMDb user rating: 5.7
– Metascore: 68
– Runtime: 138 minutes

In this retelling of the biblical story of Noah’s Ark from the Book of Genesis, God decides that mankind must be expunged from the earth as punishment for its sinful nature. He chooses one man, Noah (Russell Crowe), and tasks him with building an ark large enough to house both his family and two of every animal on earth, to protect them from an apocalyptic deluge. Under mounting pressure to pacify religious groups, Paramount included a disclaimer during the film’s promotion.

Columbia Pictures

Only the Brave (2017)

– Director: Joseph Kosinski
– IMDb user rating: 7.6
– Metascore: 72
– Runtime: 134 minutes

Inspired by a true story, “Only the Brave” surrounds the real-life Granite Mountain Hotshots, an elite firefighting group in Prescott, Arizona. While fighting the Yarnell Hill Fire in June 2013, 19 of the 20 crew members lost their lives battling the blaze, and the film is dedicated to them. The screenplay is based on the GQ article entitled “No Exit” by Sean Flynn.

Warner Bros.

The Perfect Storm (2000)

– Director: Wolfgang Petersen
– IMDb user rating: 6.4
– Metascore: 59
– Runtime: 130 minutes

Based on Sebastian Junger’s nonfiction book of the same name, “The Perfect Storm” details the story of the fishing vessel Andrea Gail, which was caught in between three major weather fronts that collided on Halloween in 1991. In this film, a crew of brave men and women must fight to survive nature out in the North Atlantic. While some of the families of the real-life crew members attempted to sue the filmmakers for their fictionalized portrayal, the cases were ultimately dismissed.

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Twentieth Century Fox

The Poseidon Adventure (1972)

– Director: Ronald Neame
– IMDb user rating: 7.1
– Metascore: 70
– Runtime: 117 minutes

On New Year’s Eve, a passenger ship en route to Greece from New York City is met with a massive tidal wave, overturning the vessel. With the ship’s captain dead, the remaining survivors must band together and evade a myriad of various obstacles as they make a desperate bid for escape. The 1972 film was based on the novel of the same name by Paul Gallico, and a sequel, “Beyond the Poseidon Adventure,” was released in 1979.

New Regency Productions

The Revenant (2015)

– Director: Alejandro G. Iñárritu
– IMDb user rating: 8.0
– Metascore: 76
– Runtime: 156 minutes

After sustaining serious injuries from a bear attack, 1820s frontiersman Hugh Glass (Leonardo DiCaprio) discovers a member of his hunting team has killed his young son. On a journey charting brutal, snowy weather, Glass is propelled by vengeance as he struggles to make his way back to civilization. The film had a notoriously difficult shoot, with crew members enduring unbearably cold conditions and many were fired or quit.


Snowpiercer (2013)

– Director: Bong Joon-ho
– IMDb user rating: 7.1
– Metascore: 84
– Runtime: 126 minutes

During Earth’s second Ice Age in a dystopian future, survivors live aboard a never-ending train ride, where classes are divided by car and the poorest passengers must fend for themselves at the back. One such passenger, Curtis Everett (Chris Evans), leads a rebellion of the lower class to take over the front of the train. Directed by Bong Joon-ho, the film marked the South Korean director’s English-language debut.

Warner Bros.

Twister (1996)

– Director: Jan de Bont
– IMDb user rating: 6.4
– Metascore: 68
– Runtime: 113 minutes

As a series of powerful tornadoes make their way toward Oklahoma, TV weatherman Bill (Bill Paxton) travels to meet his estranged meteorologist wife, Jo (Helen Hunt), so she can finally sign their divorce papers. Instead, the two of them, along with Bill’s new fiancé, Melissa (Jami Gertz), team up with Jo’s group of storm chasers to deploy a groundbreaking research device during the storm. It was the first film to receive a DVD release in the United States.

Universal Pictures

Waterworld (1995)

– Director: Kevin Reynolds
– IMDb user rating: 6.2
– Metascore: 56
– Runtime: 135 minutes

In a dystopic future following the melting of the polar ice caps, the remaining humans have attempted to adapt to life on Earth, while fewer have evolved to grow gills. One of those mutant humans, the Mariner (Kevin Costner), escapes from a water-bound prison with the help of barmaid Helen (Jeanne Tripplehorn) and her young charge, Enola (Tina Majorino), together evading those who believe Enola holds the key to a dryer world. Prior to “Titanic” in 1997, “Waterworld” was, for its time, the most expensive film ever produced.

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  • Story name: 15 unconventional Christmas albums from the past 50 years
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  • Written by: Jennifer Billock
  • Description: Stacker brings readers 15 of the most unconventional Christmas albums in the last 50 years. Songs include new material, covers, or completely made-up songs from an alternate universe.
Larina Marina // Shutterstock

15 unconventional Christmas albums from the past 50 years

Remember The Singing Dogs? It was a band made up of dogs, and all the songs were spliced-together dog barks. The group’s Christmas song, “Jingle Bells,” hit the top of Billboard’s Christmas Singles chart in 1972. But don’t be fooled—The Singing Dogs’ Christmas album is far from the quirkiest piece of holiday music out there.

Stacker dug into the recesses of Christmas or holiday-themed albums to find 15 unconventional holiday albums that stand out as cultural and musical anomalies in their addition to the much-beloved sub-genre of music. These original albums represent some of the most unique holiday songs out there. To curate this list, Stacker didn’t look at singles; just LPs and EPs were considered.

Many famous musicians have released some pretty unique versions of holiday songs. Sufjan Stevens took it to another level and released 100 songs in two installments six years apart. Afroman has a quirky Christmas album with lyrics tailored to his image and some of his favorite pastimes. Even Arcade Fire put together a secret DIY Christmas album.

Keep reading to learn more about these highly unusual holiday albums.

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‘Christmas Interpretations’ (1993) by Boyz II Men

This Christmas album was another wildly popular installment in the Boyz II Men discography. The band put their standard spin of soothing vocals and flawless harmonies on a full slate of new material, with only one cover, “Silent Night,” all a cappella. The rest of the songs on the album aren’t all as full of joy as traditional Christmas tunes, covering topics like depression, poverty, and love.

Top Ranking International

‘Natty Christmas’ (1978) by Jacob Miller

Transport to Jamaica with this reggae Christmas album. The record became a Christmas classic, with lyrics like “We bring you an Irie Christmas” and lots of references to marijuana. Plus, most of the songs are set to traditional Christmas tunes, so everyone can easily sing along.

Arcade Fire

‘A Very Arcade Xmas’ (2002) by Arcade Fire

This album can’t be bought in stores—Arcade Fire members apparently made the album for friends, hand-delivered it as holiday gifts, and then someone leaked it online. The album was recorded in 2001 live at a party.

Asthmatic Kitty Records

‘Songs for Christmas, Vols.’1-5’ (2006) and ‘Silver & Gold: Songs for Christmas, Vols. 6-10’ (2012) by Sufjan Stevens

Sufjan Stevens’s epic two-part album is split into 10 volumes of 100 songs. Half of the songs were released in 2006 and the other half in 2012. The albums reflect Stevens’ changing style throughout his career, with some songs appearing multiple times, differentiated by style and arrangement.

Tugboat Records

‘Christmas’ (1999) by Low

Low built its reputation on the sad, melancholy sounds and lyrics that are the hallmark of slowcore music, and this Christmas album is no exception. The eight original and cover songs are minimalist, spare, achingly slow, or just a little creepy and odd.

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Darla Records

‘My Morning Jacket Does Xmas Fiasco Style’ (2000) by My Morning Jacket

This six-song EP is a mix of originals and covers with some experimental vocals and riffs. Listen for the heavy electric guitar and beautiful harmonies the band is known for while still being left with a relaxed holiday soundtrack.

Foreign Office

‘A Glimpse of Stocking’ (2010) by Saint Etienne

This limited release album wasn’t too surprising for those already fans of Saint Etienne. It was a fun collection of past fan releases and covers of other Christmas songs, in the standard style anyone came to expect from the band. But only 3,000 copies were made, and for an extra expense, buyers could get a signed Christmas card and a personalized song.

Charlemagne Productions Ltd.

‘A Heavy Metal Christmas’ (2012) by Christopher Lee

Actor Christopher Lee (as seen in “Lord of the Rings” and “Dracula”) was 90 when he released this two-song heavy metal EP. The classically trained singer loved heavy metal, and the EP, which includes “Little Drummer Boy” and “Silent Night,” reflected his talent for the genre.


‘Christmas in the Stars: Star Wars Christmas Album’ (1980) by various artists

The Star Wars universe and the real world merged in this Christmas album, which made many people hate it. Star Wars characters came through with holiday gems like “What Can You Get a Wookiee for Christmas (When He Already Owns a Comb?)” and “R2-D2 We Wish You a Merry Christmas.” The cheese factor is enough to put the average person over the edge; but fetching a copy of this album (CD or vinyl) will set you back a few bucks as the album now serves as a collector’s item.

Sony Classical

‘A Very Spidey Christmas’ (2018) by ‘Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse’ cast

What started as a joke in “Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse” became a reality a week after the movie premiered. This EP, previewed in the film, is only five songs and about 11 minutes total. It features the cast singing holiday songs as their characters.

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Oglio Records

‘Eban Schletter’s Cosmic Christmas’ (2009) by Eban Schletter

Those who’ve never heard a theremin can get their fill with this album, which is an electronic sensation and so popular it has a Facebook fan page. The album description says it all: “A military satellite finds itself in the midst of a musical ‘transmission’ which forces it to rethink its primary directive.” What follows are electronic, synth, and theremin versions of holiday classics.

Hungry Hustler Records

‘A Colt 45 Christmas’ (2006) by Afroman

Afroman’s albums generally contain parental advisories, and this one’s no different. The rapper decided to put his spin on Christmas classics, turning out songs like “Afroman is Coming to Town” and “O Chronic Tree.” Each song showcases Afroman’s trademark musical humor.

Shout! Factory

‘Christmas Is 4 Ever’ (2006) by Bootsy Collins

Funk artist Bootsy Collins released this album on Halloween of 2006. None of the songs sound like the original (imagine a funky bass line on “Silent Night”), and some of them have unique collaborations. Snoop Dogg and George Clinton lend voices on “Happy Holidaze” while “Sleigh Ride” features Charlie Daniels.

ATCO Records

‘The Most Wonderful Time of the Year’ (2011) by Scott Weiland

Stone Temple Pilots frontman Scott Weiland departed his rock lifestyle with this kitschy Christmas album of covers with a twist. “O Holy Night” is reggae-style, “Silent Night” has some Spanish flair, and the singer croons Sinatra-style for a few of the more classic holiday tunes.

Comedians, Inc.

‘Merry Christmas Baby’ (1971) by Rudy Ray Moore

Rudy Ray Moore was a crass comedy legend—and he brought it all for this album. The A-side is relatively benign, with the smooth namesake song “Merry Christmas Baby.” However, those who turn the record over will be hit with a wildly X-rated B-side, with lyrics that match the album sleeve art.

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  • Story name: Historic state and county fair photos from every state
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  • Written by: Madison Troyer
  • Description: Using local and government archives, Stacker curated a selection of historic state and county fair photos from every state.
Jon Brenneis // Getty Images

Historic state and county fair photos from every state

We tend to think of fairs—with their fried food, carnival rides, and smelly livestock pens—as all-American experiences. In reality, we weren’t the first to come up with the concept; we merely adapted it from a millennia-old tradition.

The first fairs, or “feriae,” were put on by Ancient Romans. Typically surrounding their holy days, these events included games, competitions, feasts, and other festivities. By the time they made their way to the United States thousands of years later, fairs had shed their association with religion and shifted their focus to promoting agriculture and home skills, instead.

While the focus of many county and state fairs is still agricultural, the events have continued to evolve and today feel more like carnivals than the educational experience they once were.

Stacker curated a selection of historical state and county fair photos from every state. Using local and government archives, we’ve selected images that demonstrate the development of our country’s fairs from lecture circuits to amusement events. Keep reading to see what your state fair looked like in the days of yore.

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Corbis via Getty Images


Alabama held its first state fair back in 1855. Among the fair’s activities at the time were a plowing contest, horse races, and hot air balloons. Today, the Alabama State Fair features everything from aquatic acrobatics and motorcycle stunts to circus acts and magic shows.

Liz // Wikimedia Commons


The tradition of growing giant cabbages for the Alaska State Fair goes back to 1941 when a $25 prize (almost $400 in today’s dollars) was offered for the largest leafy vegetable. In 2012, two years after this photo was taken, Scott Robb set a world record for the heaviest cabbage with a 138.25-pound entry.

PhotoQuest // Getty Images


In the 1950s, Arizona state fair officials began inviting bands and musical acts to play at the annual event. Performers over the years included big names like Elvis Presley and Patsy Cline. Here, folks square dance during the 1959 fair in Phoenix.

Lynsey Addario/Getty Images Reportage


Like many others, the Arkansas State Fair started as a livestock show back in 1938 as a way to promote the industry, which was just beginning to flourish. That tradition of showing farm animals remains in place to this day, as demonstrated by this young lady and her cow at the 2011 fair.

Jon Brenneis // Getty Images


Not content with hosting an ordinary state fair, California installed a permanent monorail on its Sacramento fairgrounds to help move attendees around the 350-acre property. The Walt Disney-inspired system isn’t the only thrilling attraction attendees can enjoy—the midway has also been packed with fantastically fun carnival rides, like the one these children enjoyed in the 1950s.

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Ed Maker/The Denver Post via Getty Images


One of the best parts of any state fair is the cuisine. Here, three youngsters enjoy cotton candy, cola, and a candied apple at the 1966 fair in Pueblo, Colorado. Today, deep-fried Pueblo chiles rank among the most popular fair foods in the state.

CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images


American housewives during World War I were asked to sign cards pledging to conserve and preserve food as part of the war effort to mitigate nationwide food shortages. This booth at the 1917 Connecticut State Fair sought to collect signed food-conservation cards from women attendees.

Herbert Quick // Shutterstock


Many state fairs still feature horse-pulling competitions, in which pairs of horses are tied to stone boats or weighted sleds as handlers compete to see which teams can pull the most weight over a short distance. Here, three men lead draft horses across the arena after a pulling competition at the state fair in Harrington, Delaware, in 2015.

ISC Images & Archives via Getty Images


In conjunction with the Florida State Fair, local businesses often sponsored drivers during the International Motor Contest Association Winternationals held each February. Here, a driver gets set for an IMCA Sprint Car race during the state fair in 1952 with his sponsor’s name emblazoned across the hood of the car.

Jack Delano // Library of Congress


State fairs, like many other aspects of American life, were segregated well into the mid-20th century. In 1941, the Greene County Fair in Greensboro, Georgia, admitted white schoolchildren for free one day, then Black children for free the next.

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Theodore Trimmer // Shutterstock


For more than a decade, Hawaii’s state fair was known as “The 49th State Fair” in anticipation of the island nation joining the United States. When Alaska beat Hawaii to the distinction by eight months in 1959, the latter renamed its event “The 50th State Fair.”

Tami Freed // Shutterstock


From the earliest days of the Idaho State Fair, cowboy contests—like steer roping and bronco riding—have been major components of the festivities. In this photo, taken at the North Idaho State Fair, a group of sheep await the mutton-busting event, during which children rode and raced them.

Transcendental Graphics // Getty Images


As the automobile gained popularity in the early 1900s, Illinois added a one-mile race track to the fairgrounds. This picture offers a view of racers at the starting line of the automobile race at the Illinois State Fair in 1910.

Lawrence Thornton/Archive Photos // Getty Images


The first 40 Indiana State Fairs were held at a different location each year until the Indiana State Fairgrounds and Event Center opened in 1892. Harness racing, as seen above at the Indiana State Fair in 1950, was a popular event at many fetes.

Arthur Rothstein // Library of Congress


When Iowans first began tinkering with the idea of hosting a state fair in the 1850s, the intention was to create an educational event for farmers. While the fair has moved well beyond lengthy lectures and classes, the exhibition of new and groundbreaking farm equipment, like these corn pickers at the 1939 fair, remains a staple.

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Hirst/Kansas Historical Society // Wikimedia Commons


Kansas’ state fair dates back to 1873 when the Reno County Agricultural Society was founded. The organization put together a modest fair held in a livery stable behind the only bank in Hutchinson, a town not yet one year old. In this photo from 1906, fair participants show their horses to a judge.

Caufield & Shook, Inc. // Library of Congress


The first Kentucky State Fair was held in 1902 and drew around 75,000 visitors—about 3% of the entire state at the time. Photographed here is an indoor cattle show at the 1934 Kentucky State Fair.

Russell Lee // Library of Congress


A decade after this photo was taken at the 1938 Louisiana State Fair, the United States had more than 100 traveling sideshows—or “freakshows,” as they were called. Here, a barker works at enticing fairgoers to stop and watch the full performance.

H. Armstrong Roberts/Retrofile // Getty Images


This photograph gives us a peek behind the scenes at a Maine fair in the 1930s. Showmen prepare their livestock for viewing and competition in these mini-pens outside the fair’s main gates.

Warren K. Leffler // Library of Congress


In the first few decades of Maryland’s state fair, concession options were fairly limited, consisting primarily of sandwiches made by farmer’s wives. These days, attendees can chow down on almost anything they can think of, from cotton candy to crab at Nick’s Grandstand Grill and Crabhouse, which is open at the fairgrounds year-round.

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The first Massachusetts State Fair, which took place in 1807, was a tiny event consisting only of sheep-shearing demonstrations. However, by 1976, as demonstrated by this photo, it had grown exponentially and was just as much an amusing experience as an educational one.

H.N. Nelson // Library of Congress


Presidents and presidential candidates have made a point of attending state fairs throughout history. Here, President William Howard Taft addresses crowds at the state fair in Detroit in September 1911.

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While we tend to associate this sort of daredevil act with circuses rather than state fairs, the local events have been just as instrumental in promoting audiences’ love of hair-raising stunts. In this photo, 18-year-old aviatrix Lillian Boyer of Chicago hangs from her Curtiss JN-4 biplane ahead of performing at the Minnesota State Fair in the early 1920s.

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The bounty of the state of Mississippi is on display in the rows of jellies, fruits, vegetables, and miscellaneous food items ready to be judged at this 1950 state fair.

Missouri State Archives // Wikimedia Commons


This auto daredevil show at the Missouri State Fair in the 1960s was possibly inspired by the wild wheeled stunts of Evel Knievel, whose popularity was skyrocketing in the same decade.

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Two days after he performed at the Montana State Fair, becoming the first person to fly over the continental divide, Cromwell Dixon died in a plane crash at the Washington State Fair. At only 19 years old at the time, Dixon was the youngest licensed pilot in the country.

Public Domain // Wikimedia Commons


While fair’s today are typically considered family-friendly events, that hasn’t always been the case—in Nebraska, at least. In the fair’s earliest years, before alcohol sales were banned, patrons frequently complained of drunken attendees and indecent (i.e., burlesque) shows.

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State fairs that include cowboy contests often have a calf roping event, in which participants, like this Nevada cowboy, compete to catch and tie up a free-running calf as quickly as possible.

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New Hampshire

New farming equipment, brought for display by the various companies, was once a huge draw at state fairs. However, as the number of family-run farms has dwindled, the number of machines and implements on display at fairs has shrunk significantly. Here, men at the 1940 New Hampshire State Fair look at a new model of milking machine made by the Syracuse Milking Machine Company.

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New Jersey

Many state fairs have included beauty pageants at some point in their history. These competitions essentially provided the basis for bigger events like the Miss America pageant. Here, things come full circle when Miss America 1951, Yolande Betbeze, appeared at the 1951 New Jersey State Fair.

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New Mexico

From the late 1950s through the 1990s, Tim and Patty Rivers toured with their three diving mules to state fairs around the country. The animals would leap off of an 18-foot high diving platform into a water tank. Running the only act of its kind in the country, the pair often found themselves bumping heads with animal cruelty activists who detested the “inhumane” show.

Library of Congress

New York

Another example of politics taking center stage at a state fair, this suffrage tent set up at Suffolk County Fair in Long Island, New York, in 1914 offers free child care as well as suffragette sashes for women who supported the cause.

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North Carolina

Fairgoers soar above the midway on this ride at the North Carolina State Fair in Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1988.

W,O. Olson // Library of Congress

North Dakota

Lectures, who educated attendees on everything from best farming practices to religion, were a staple of state fairs past. Here, railroad director James Jerome Hill delivers one of these talks to a rapt audience at a North Dakota State Fair in 1909.

Ben Shahn // Library of Congress


Sideshows, like this one at a 1938 Ohio State Fair showing off a famous “fat lady,” have all but disappeared from today’s state fairs. Their waning popularity is seemingly for the best, as they were generally exploitative and, in some cases, abusive.

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First erected in 1953, not for the state fair but for the International Petroleum Exposition and Congress, which was held on the Oklahoma state fairgrounds, the Golden Driller has become a landmark in the Sooner State. According to state officials, the oilman is the largest free-standing statue in the world.

OSU Special Collections & Archives // Wikimedia Commons


The Oregon State Fair is so massive that each year the fairgrounds temporarily become the fifth-largest city in the state. Winning a top prize then, like this 1912 Grand Champion mare, is no small feat.

Heilman/Classicstock // Getty Images


First held in 1765, a full decade before the Declaration of Independence was signed, the York State Fair is the oldest in the United States. Here, a crowd strolls down the fair’s midway in the mid-1950s, nearly two centuries later.

H. Armstrong Roberts/Retrofile // Getty Images

Rhode Island

Many state fairs experienced their heyday in the runup to the Great Depression—the events had moved beyond being purely educational exhibitions but money to put them on had not yet run out. Here, a man gets his photo taken with his dates at a Rhode Island State Fair in the early 1920s.

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South Carolina

This photo provides an example of an early automobile racing event, many of which were run at state and county fairground tracks, often in conjunction with the fair itself. Lots of these dirt racetracks were also used for horse racing.

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F. H. Camp // Library of Congress

South Dakota

In South Dakota, local 4-H clubs play a huge role in the state fair. From running booths to exhibiting livestock (as demonstrated here by this stock parade at a 1912 fair), these groups provide the backbone for the annual event.

Bob Grannis // Getty Images


Classic bumper cars, like the ones seen at state fairs and amusement parks today, are typically attached to long poles that scrape across an electric grid on the ceiling and transfer power to the cars themselves. Here, a bumper car attendee resets the cars between rides at the 1953 Tennessee State Fair.

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State fairs have long been places for political candidates to make the rounds and connect with their constituents in hopes of winning another vote or two. Here, a group of girls at the 1960 Texas State Fair demonstrate their support for Richard Nixon, the Republican candidate for president at the time, who was in attendance.

YegoroV // Shutterstock


The Desert Agricultural and Manufacturing Society, an incorporated body tasked with “promoting the arts of domestic industry” in Utah, was the group behind the state’s first fair. It makes sense, then, why the fair places such an extraordinary emphasis on home arts—like canning, quilting, and agriculture—to this day, as demonstrated by these homemade jellies that won ribbons in 2009.

Jack Delano // Library of Congress


Vermont has one of the oldest state fairs in the country, holding its first event way back in 1846. Here, almost a century later in 1941, a fairgoer takes a respite in the shade of a train car while enjoying the day.

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Many state fairs no longer allow minors to attend without an accompanying adult. That hasn’t been the case at the Virginia State Fair, where young adults are allowed to roam as freely as these young ladies did in 1975.

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Though carnival rides first began appearing at the Washington State Fair in the 1920s, they became a focal point of the event in the 1930s. The various rides pictured here on the Puyallup fairgrounds in the ’30s were powered by gasoline engines.

Lewis Wickes Hine // Library of Congress

West Virginia

According to West Virginia historians, among the items judged at the first state fair back in 1854 were fruit and dairy items. The tradition continued for years, as evidenced by this photo of the milk booth at the 1921 fair in Charleston, West Virginia.

Melvin E. Diemer/Wisconsin Historical Society // Getty Images


Commonly referred to as the dairy capital of America, it’s not at all surprising that dairy animals and byproducts play a large part in the state’s fair. Pictured here is an exhibit of Holstein Friesian cows, the world’s highest production dairy animals, at the 1920 event.

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Wyoming has always used its state fair as a way to bring families and the community together. One way they do this is by kicking off each year’s festivities with a parade that winds through the town of Douglas. Here, crowds line the streets to view the 1957 kick-off parade.

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  • Story name: How climate change has affected each state
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  • Written by: Stephanie Parker
  • Description: To better understand how climate change is affecting the United States, Stacker compiled a list of the impacts of climate change in each state using news articles, scientific articles, and government reports.
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How climate change has affected each state

The latest United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report is yet another reminder of the dire effects of climate change. While climate projections often look to the future when discussing the worst impacts of climate change, we are in fact already experiencing its effects across the United States. To better understand how climate change is impacting the country, Stacker compiled a list of the impacts of climate change in every state, using local and national news stories, government reports, and scientific journal articles.

While these impacts are weather-related—for example, heat waves, droughts, or storms—individual weather events cannot be attributed to climate change on their own. Rather, it is when these events are seen within larger trends that they can be understood as part of a pattern that has come out of the changing climate.

Across the country, there are trends of rising temperatures, storms of increasing frequency and severity, and more erratic precipitation patterns, causing disruptions to the food systems and sometimes even resulting in death. While the U.S. government has set a target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 50% by 2030, it is clear that the climate emergency is already taking place, and along with emissions reductions, mitigation of the impacts of climate change must be prioritized as well.

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Alabama: More days of dangerous heat

Temperatures have been rising in Alabama, and thanks to climate change, they sometimes reach dangerous levels. Currently, Alabama experiences around 15 days of dangerously high temperatures each year, which is defined as a heat index above 105 F. Given the current trends, Alabama could experience up to 70 of these days per year by 2050, endangering more than 160,000 people in the state who are most vulnerable to extreme heat.

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Alaska: Worse and more frequent wildfires

As America’s northernmost state, wildfires might not be the first thing that comes to mind when people think of Alaska. This state has warmed more than twice as fast as the rest of the country in the past 60 years, and by 2050, temperatures are expected to go up another 2–4 F. Due to these rising temperatures, there were twice the number of wildfires larger than 1,000 acres in the 2000s than in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, the number of acres burned is increasing as is the length of Alaska’s fire season.

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Arizona: Decades-long drought

The year 2021 marked the 26th year of long-term drought in Arizona. This drought has dried up water sources, decimated crops, and killed cattle. One group especially impacted by this drought is the Hopi tribe. Because of this dramatic drought, the Hopi Tribal Council mandated that ranchers had to cull their herds to preserve water and avoid an even larger death toll. This has caused a lot of tension within the tribe, with the Hopi cattlemen protesting the decision, which the Council eventually overturned.

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Arkansas: Increased flooding

Since 1950, heavy rainfalls have increased in Arkansas, with more days of two or more inches of rain increasing each year. This has led to greater inland flooding, and the state now has one of the highest threats of inland flooding in the country. In June 2021, Arkansas experienced more than a foot of rain in a short period of time, causing heavy flooding.

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California: Not enough water

According to The Hill, California is the second-most vulnerable state to climate change, with only Florida in a more vulnerable position. Over the past few years, California has seen increasingly worse wildfire seasons, and its water supply from snow in the Sierra Nevada mountains, a critical source, is predicted to drop by two-thirds by 2050. This potential drought, along with worsening fires, will make it more difficult to grow important crops. However, California is being proactive. The state passed its Senate Bill 100, also referred to as The 100 Percent Clean Energy Act of 2018, and has pledged to put 5 million zero-emission vehicles on the roads by 2030.

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Colorado: Colorado River drying up

A total of 40 million people rely on the water from the Colorado River, and while experts have taken steps to save water, giant wildfires and heat waves are reducing water levels in this river faster than expected. The flow of the Colorado River has already declined by 20% compared to its average flow in the 1900s, and if warming continues on its current trajectory, that decline could reach 50% by 2100.


Connecticut: More 100-year storms

Connecticut is located on the Eastern Seaboard; the entire southern side of the state is the Atlantic coast. Because of climate change, the Atlantic hurricane season is now seeing more major storms (Category 3 or higher) than before. In early September 2021, Connecticut was hit by the remnants of Hurricane Ida and experienced flooding and around 190 power outages. “[Heavy rainfall events] are very low frequency, but they are becoming more frequent as the climate changes,” Peter Raymon, a Yale professor of ecosystem ecology, said in an article from the Yale Daily News. “It is predicted by all the models and is already showing up in our data. We have more rainfall coming in these larger events than we used to.”

Nicole Glass Photography // Shutterstock

Delaware: Spilling sewage

Due to climate change, Delaware has experienced increasingly heavy rainfall, which leads to inland flooding and, during some of the worst storms, sewage overflow. During Hurricane Sandy in 2012, 3.1 million gallons of sewage spilled in Delaware. However, the state is taking climate change seriously and recently passed three new environmental bills to curb carbon emissions, expand renewable energy use, and protect its ecosystems from plastic waste.

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Florida: Going underwater

According to The Hill, Florida is the state most vulnerable to climate change. The sea level in Florida has risen about 1 inch per decade and heavy rainstorms are becoming more frequent and severe. Scientists predict the southern third of the state could be underwater by 2100, and that parts of Miami could be underwater even sooner. Democrats in the state are trying to pass an energy plan to make the state more energy-efficient through initiatives such as rewarding farmers for conserving energy and making state-funded buildings more energy-efficient, among others. However, it is unlikely that the state’s Republican lawmakers will support it.

Andrew Brunk // Shutterstock

Georgia: A threat to peaches

Since 1960, Georgia’s average winter temperature has increased by 5 F. That is a problem for Georgia’s state fruit, the peach. Peaches need chilly conditions, generally under 45 F, in order to be properly ready for summer harvest. Given how the temperatures are rising, Georgia’s peach industry could be gone by 2100.

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Hawaii: Danger for agriculture

Hawaii’s agriculture is being threatened by the impacts of climate change. Between 1950 and 2010, Hawaii’s average temperature increased by about 2 F. The state’s islands have been experiencing more fires, worse droughts, more flooding, and increased heat due to climate change, all of which will have an impact on its agricultural industries. Multiple crops are affected, with topsoil being lost to flooding, corn growers having more difficulty pollinating their crops, and macadamia nut trees not flowering as easily due to increased temperatures.

Francis Dean // Getty Images

Idaho: Fewer crops—like onions

One way the state of Idaho is experiencing climate change is increased drought. It is estimated that, by 2050, Idaho will see a 110% increase in drought. However, the impacts are already being felt today. This past summer, farmers in western Idaho faced lower production due to a lack of melting snow, spring rain, and hotter-than-average temperatures. This dry spring led to a 15% to 20% loss in onion production, and also has been a threat to wildlife.

Wuttha Sripradisvarakul // Shutterstock

Illinois: Worsening air quality

In the summer of 2020, Chicago experienced its longest streak of high-pollution air days in more than 10 years. Continually dirty air is one consequence of climate change because warmer temperatures mean more ozone production and the trapping of smog and soot. “While emissions in some ways may be decreasing somewhat, the tendency of the changing climate is to produce more days where air quality can be an issue,” Donald Wuebbles, an atmospheric sciences professor at the University of Illinois, told the Chicago Tribune.

Mardis Coers // Getty Images

Indiana: Decline in crop yields

The Indiana annual crop summary released in January 2020 showed that changing weather patterns, which can be attributed to climate change, affected the production of the state’s most important crops. In 2019, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, near-historic levels of precipitation caused a decline in corn and soybean production. This could potentially cost farmers hundreds of millions of dollars a year.

Scott Olson // Getty Images

Iowa: Warmer winters

In Iowa, climate change is likely to cause winter warming, including fewer sub-zero days along with more drought and heavier rainfall that leads to flooding. To deal with the impact of climate change in Iowa and globally, students in Ames formed a group named CAUSE (Citizens Actualizing and Understanding Sustainable Environments) and have asked their school district to take action in order to prevent climate change. The group is asking the district to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste, educate students more about climate change, and use energy consultants. It is similar to a plan passed in Iowa City, Iowa, a couple of years ago.

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Kansas: Not enough water

There is likely to be a decrease in available water in Kansas due to changing patterns of precipitation. Drought has been a big problem in western Kansas this year, and it is predicted that Kansas will be at risk for flooding and drought in the coming years due to extreme weather events caused by climate change. In a draft of Kansas’ water plan, released once every five years, it says, “It is not an overstatement to say that the future of habitability in much of western Kansas is at stake.”

Scott Olson // Getty Images

Kentucky: Too much rain

Kentucky has seen three of its five wettest years on record in the past decade, and the summer of 2020 had the most rain of any two-month period on record. This rain often comes in destructive downpours, causing severe flooding. In 2020, Louisville, Kentucky, experienced such extreme flooding that it swamped neighborhoods and hurt businesses.

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Louisiana: Climate migration

According to The Hill, Louisiana is the third most vulnerable state to climate change. The state has experienced numerous destructive hurricanes, including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and Hurricane Ida in the summer of 2021. Disasters like these are prompting people to migrate out of the state, either because their homes have been destroyed or because they are worried about the next disaster. The outsize impact that climate change has in Louisiana has led Democratic Gov. John Bel Edwards to enter Louisiana into Race to Zero, a United Nations climate change initiative. “No state in our country is more adversely impacted by climate change than Louisiana—in just the last year alone we’ve experienced major hurricanes, flash flooding and a severe winter storm,” Edwards said. “But at the same time, no state is better positioned to be a leader in reducing carbon emissions and bolstering coastal resiliency.”

Nature’s Charm // Shutterstock

Maine: Changing the ocean ecosystem

The Gulf of Maine, located at the convergence of two major ocean currents with shallow water, is especially susceptible to warming. In fact, it is currently warming faster than 99% of global oceans. This has become a problem for Maine’s ocean ecosystem as warming waters could cause cod habitat to shrink by 90% by 2100, lobster populations to move up to 200 miles north, and allow invasive species like black sea bass to move into Maine’s waters.

The Washington Post // Getty Images

Maryland: Severe weather in the Chesapeake Bay

Maryland’s Chesapeake Bay has been impacted by the increase of severe storms caused by climate change. Both 2018 and 2019 saw record rainfall in the region, which increased sewage overflows, flooding, and water pollution. These storms also cause runoff of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment into the bay, which leads to more algae blooms and dead zones. Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan has taken the issue seriously and submitted a memorandum to the state’s legislative leaders in October 2021 that laid out four key principles to steer climate and environmental actions in the state, including expanding land conservation and preservation and transitioning to a cleaner economy.

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Massachusetts: Duller leaves

Because of warmer temperatures, the fall colors of New England states like Massachusetts are coming later and are harder to predict. Additionally, extreme weather events have also caused the color of leaves to be duller and have sometimes stopped the seasons altogether. What’s more, due to the changing temperatures, the distribution of the trees themselves has already started to change and will likely change further. Already in Massachusetts, there are more poplar trees, meaning more yellow and less red color in the fall.

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Michigan: Flooding in Detroit

During the summer of 2021, extensive flooding from extreme weather events had dire impacts in Detroit. Along with the weather itself, the failing infrastructure in the city led to people having to sometimes dig human waste out of their own basements. Unfortunately, the areas that are often hit hardest by climate change are poorer areas with Black and brown residents. “Black and brown communities are bearing the brunt of heat waves, paying disproportionately higher costs on failing infrastructure,” Michelle Martinez, the acting executive director and founding member of the Michigan Environmental Justice Coalition, said in an interview with Michigan Radio’s Stateside.

Luke Rague // Shutterstock

Minnesota: Changes to the wild rice harvest

Wild rice is a sacred food for the Anishinaabe, who live across northern Minnesota along with Wisconsin and Michigan. This year, the region saw a historic drought, which actually helped yield more wild rice than in years past. However, because of the drought conditions—and while the rice did grow more easily—it was more difficult to access the wild rice and harvest it this year. The harvest is done by tribe members navigating shallow water beds in a canoe and using sticks to knock the rice grains into the boat. But because water levels were so low this year, some areas could not be accessed by boat and the wild rice could not be harvested.

Tracy Burroughs Brown // Shutterstock

Mississippi: Ecosystem imbalance in the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area

Like most places, the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area is also being impacted by climate, with rising temperatures and roughly 20% more precipitation. This has an important impact on the wildlife, as warmer temperatures make it easier for pests like mosquitos and deer ticks to survive the winter. Native species may not be able to withstand the new temperatures. Instead, they could get pushed out by non-native species moving northward to escape the heat, such as the white-footed mouse and Virginia opossum.

Scott Olson // Getty Images

Missouri: More flooding

While Missouri doesn’t have coasts or forest fires to contend with, the state is still experiencing the effects of climate change. In Missouri, 62% of the years between 1981 and 2019 saw above normal levels of precipitation. The increase in water could increase flooding, which would be especially damaging in a city like Kansas City, which could see its sewer system overwhelmed and its critical infrastructure damaged. In order to mitigate the worst impacts, KC Water, Kansas City’s water utility, said it would implement a new green infrastructure that guides stormwater into areas with soil and plants, so the water soaks into the ground naturally instead of flooding the urban area.

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Montana: Glacier National Park is losing its glaciers

Montana’s Glacier National Park is famous for its beauty, and of course, for its glaciers. However, due to warming temperatures, the park is losing its glaciers—and fast. Right now, the park has 25 glaciers remaining, a stark contrast from the 150 that existed there in the late 1800s. And the numbers will continue to drop, as scientists predict that the park’s glaciers could completely disappear within the next two decades.

John Moore // Getty Images

Nebraska: Too much and too little water

In March 2019, Nebraska experienced $2.5 billion in damages from flooding. The floods drowned calves, destroyed fields, and swept away homes. This flooding was caused by record-breaking snowfall accumulating between January and March. This extreme weather led to this flooding, but Nebraska also experiences extreme weather in the other direction: drought.

PATRICK T. FALLON // Getty Images

Nevada: Extreme heat

Nevada experienced record-breaking heat in the summer of 2021. Las Vegas was especially impacted, as it is an urban heat island, and the county where it is located saw 82 heat-related deaths in 2020. While this heat does and will continue to impact everyone, it is especially bad for Nevadans who suffer from respiratory illnesses, who are elderly, and those who live in areas with low air quality, which are often people of color and those living in poorer communities. States at Risk estimates that in Nevada, around 70,000 people are part of these vulnerable communities that will be most impacted.

Wangkun Jia // Shutterstock

New Hampshire: Increased coastal flooding

Because of a sea level rise due to climate change, there are already many people living in New Hampshire’s coastal communities who are seeing increased coastal flooding. This will only get worse in the coming years. By 2045, 2,000 current residential properties, where around 3,000 people reside, will be at risk of chronic flooding. This is around $645 million worth of property.

FotosForTheFuture // Shutterstock

New Jersey: More disease-transmitting insects

Temperatures in New Jersey are rising faster than the national average, and its warmest 10 years since 1895 have all come after 1990. This has many impacts on the state, including an increase in insects. Because warmer temperatures and moist climates lead to more mosquitos, New Jersey saw a record number of West Nile cases in 2018, including three deaths, and in 2019, the state had the earliest ever reported case when a man was diagnosed on June 21.

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New Mexico: The Rio Grande is drying up

Each year from 2009 to 2014, the Rio Grande was drier than average, and the period between 2011 and 2013 was the driest and hottest since record-keeping began. A comprehensive study found that flows from 2000 to 2014 were almost 20% below the average of the 20th century and that roughly one-third of this reduction was attributable to climate change. While the Rio Grande is known for having a couple of dry years followed by a couple of recovery wet years, the warming temperatures make each dry year even drier and each wet year less wet, making long-term recovery more difficult.

David Dee Delgado // Getty Images

New York: Killer storms

In September 2021, a storm caused by the remnants of Hurricane Ida, which had hit the New Orleans area the day before, flooded New York City and killed at least 43 people in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut. The storm also flooded New York City’s subways for the third time in the summer of 2021, showing how vulnerable the city’s infrastructure is to the effects of climate change. While the city is testing innovations to make the subways more flood-proof, such as flex gates, there is still much to be done for the city’s infrastructure.

Chip Somodevilla // Getty Images

North Carolina: Billions in storm damage

North Carolina saw two 500-year storms—storms so severe that they historically only took place once every 500 years—within 23 months of one another in 2016 and 2018. Hurricane Matthew, which hit North Carolina in October 2016, cost the state roughly $1.5 billion, and Hurricane Florence, which hit in September 2018, cost around $2 billion. In response to climate change, which contributes to the frequency and severity of these storms, North Carolina Gov. Roy Cooper issued Executive Order No. 80, which calls for a 40% drop in greenhouse gas emissions in the state by 2025, establishes the North Carolina Climate Change Interagency Council, and directs state agencies to take actions to reduce emissions.

northlight // Shutterstock

North Dakota: Mega-drought

North Dakota is currently experiencing a mega-drought, and it’s gotten so bad that it’s being compared to the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. The drought has forced ranchers to sell off their herds, and it’s been so dry that they haven’t been able to grow their own hay. They are worried that they won’t have enough food to keep their remaining cattle alive through the winter. Thanks to climate change, North Dakota is almost 2.5 F warmer than it was 100 years ago, leading to more frequent erratic swings in weather.

Michael Shake // Shutterstock

Ohio: Changes to Lake Erie

According to the 2018 Fourth National Climate Assessment report, climate change has been affecting the Great Lakes, including Ohio’s Lake Erie. Due to warming in the Midwest, there is an increase of lake-effect snow, and in the future, as temperatures warm further, that could shift to rain. In addition, there are increased lake surface temperatures leading to decreased ice coverage, which could actually lead to more snow. Lake Erie is also seeing more algae blooms due to the increased temperature. In 2014, cyanobacteria from an algae bloom polluted the drinking water of Toledo, Ohio.

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Oklahoma: More wildfires

While wildfires are generally considered a problem for the Western United States, thanks to climate change, they are beginning to take place further east—in Oklahoma, for example—according to a report from Climate Central. In 2018, Oklahoma experienced more than 1,000 wildfires, and more than 4 million residents live in areas that have an increased risk of wildfires.

Clifford Wayne Estes // Shutterstock

Oregon: Changes to natural systems

As temperatures get warmer in Oregon, the state’s wildlife is being impacted. Insects are moving up into the state from southern states, and pest species such as the mountain pine beetle are increasing in numbers. In addition, the migration patterns of many bird species are changing, and flowering is taking place sooner due to the earlier arrival of springlike temperatures. This can lead to mismatches in the life cycles of interdependent species, such as certain insects or birds, and puts these native species in danger.

BONNIE WATTON // Shutterstock

Pennsylvania: Stressed trees

According to The Hill, Pennsylvania is the fifth least vulnerable state to climate change. However, it is still experiencing some impacts from the warming temperatures, for example, as some of its native trees are being stressed. The black cherry and sugar maple, which are both commercially valuable hardwoods, are seeing their numbers decline, and trees that are currently dominant in the southern part of the state, such as hickories and oaks, may move northward.

Kwangmoozaa // Shutterstock

Rhode Island: More mosquitoes

As temperatures rise in Rhode Island, so do the number of mosquitoes. Between 1980 and 1989, there was an average of 97 days per year that the state experienced temperatures ideal for mosquitoes. That number has risen, however, and since 2006, there are 113 of those days per year. And mosquitoes aren’t just annoying—they bring diseases with them, such as Eastern equine encephalitis and West Nile virus.

Sean Rayford // Getty Images

South Carolina: Rising sea levels

The sea level around the city of Charleston, South Carolina, has risen 10 inches since 1950, and forecasts predict that by 2030, it will have risen another 6 inches. Since 2000, flooding across the state has increased by 75%, and there are already more than 90,000 properties at risk from this flooding. In order to prevent damage, South Carolina is planning to spend over $2 billion for sea level rise solutions, such as raising roads, beach renourishment, seawalls, and improving drainage.

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South Dakota: Flooded farms

Like so many states, because of climate change, South Dakota is simultaneously facing not enough and too much water. The state experiences drought, but it is also experiencing heavier rainfall at times, which is generally uncommon in the state. In September 2019, between 10–13.5 inches of rain fell throughout the state in a 48-hour period, causing severe flooding. The flooding is especially concerning to farmers because, in 2019, the Department of Agriculture reported that weather conditions prevented the use of 4 million acres of farmland.

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Tennessee: Flash floods

In August 2021, parts of Tennessee were hit by record-breaking amounts of rainfall that caused unexpected flash flooding, killing at least 21 people. In less than 24 hours, 17 inches of rain fell in Humphreys County. While a single weather event alone can’t be definitively attributed to climate change, a federal study found that climate change doubles the chances of these types of heavy downpours taking place.

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Texas: Severe cold wave

In February 2021, Texas experienced a cold snap so severe that it caused millions of people across the state to lose power, nearly 150 deaths, and at least $20 billion in damages. A recent study from Science found that cold waves like Texas’ can be caused by a stretching of the polar vortex, due to temperatures and reduced sea ice in the Arctic caused by climate change. The study showed that this polar vortex stretching has been responsible for some of the worst cold waves in parts of Asia, Europe, and North American in recent years.

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Utah: Shorter ski seasons

Utah is known as being a great place for snow skiing, but in the past 100 years, the state has warmed by an average of 2 F, increasing the average low temperature at the state’s 14 ski resorts. There are also fewer cold days ideal for skiing, and Utah’s snowpack, snow quality, and the length of the ski season are also likely to decline. Ski resort managers are trying to adapt to these changes by making artificial snow, but this is also difficult due to the lack of water and infrastructure.

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Vermont: Less maple syrup

Because of the warmer and drier growing seasons that are a result of climate change, sugar maple tree growth has become stunted. Maple trees need to reach a size of at least 10 inches in diameter at chest height in order to be tapped, and if the trees do not have the conditions to grow large enough, maple syrup producers could see their output dry up. As America’s largest producer of maple syrup, Vermont will be impacted by this problem. However, farmers are adapting. Because sap needs temperatures below freezing at night and above freezing during the day in order to flow from the taps, sugaring season, which used to begin around March, has now been starting in January because the weather is warmer earlier.

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Virginia: An island being washed away

Tangier Island is a 5-mile-long island located in the Chesapeake Bay between Maryland and Virginia, but part of Virginia, and is home to 600 people. Unfortunately, the island is slowly shrinking, as it is washed away due to rising sea levels from climate change, along with erosion. Since 1850, the island has shrunk by two-thirds. However, the population is conservative, so many residents don’t believe that what is happening is due to the changing climate or human activity.

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Washington: Extreme heat

Washington state made headlines in June 2021 when it was hit by an extreme heatwave that saw temperatures well over 100 F and saw Seattle’s hottest day ever on June 28 when temperatures hit 108 F. The state saw another heatwave in July 2021 and while temperatures weren’t as high, droughts meant that wildfires broke out across Washington and neighboring Oregon and Idaho. According to scientists, these heatwaves were made 150 times more likely by climate change.

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West Virginia: Increased rainfall and flooding

Climate change is contributing to increased rainfall in West Virginia. The state is one of the most prone to flash floods due to the geography of the Appalachian Mountains, which channel water very quickly downstream to larger rivers. West Virginia is the United States’ second-largest producer of coal, the more carbon-intensive source of fuel, and sources 94% of its own electricity from coal-fired plants.

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Wisconsin: Rain and drought fluctuations

Each year in Wisconsin, the amount of rain and snow has increased by around 15%, and extreme rains are becoming more common in the state. However, these periods of heavy rain are then interspersed by periods of heavy drought. This has been especially challenging for farmers who have had to adapt to the heavier rains and keep soil and nutrients in their fields.

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Wyoming: Increased droughts

As of the summer of 2021, Wyoming was in a multi-year drought that was the state’s worst since 2013. And 2020 was Wyoming’s fifth-driest and 16th warmest summer since 1895. By 2050, Wyoming is expected to see a 40% increase in the severity of widespread drought. The result of these worsening droughts will be more wildfires and more stress for farmers, ranchers, and wildlife.

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